The Impact of Varicocele on Male Fertility And Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Varicocele is a common condition that affects many men. It occurs when the veins in the scrotum become enlarged, which can cause pain, discomfort, and even infertility. In this article, we will discuss the impact of varicocele on male fertility, as well as the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition.

Varicocele is a medical condition that occurs when the veins in the scrotum become enlarged or dilated. The scrotum is an anatomical pouch that contains the testicles, which are an essential part of the male reproductive system. The veins in the scrotum play a vital role in carrying blood away from the testicles. When the valves in these veins do not function properly, blood can pool and cause the veins to become enlarged, which is known as a varicocele.

Varicocele is a common condition that affects about 10-15% of men, usually between the ages of 15 and 35. It is more commonly found on the left side of the scrotum than the right, and in some cases, it can be asymptomatic, meaning it does not cause any symptoms. However, in some cases, varicocele can cause pain, discomfort, or affect male fertility. Treatment options include pain management and, in cases where fertility is affected, surgery or minimally invasive procedures to repair the affected veins.

Impact on Male Fertility

Varicocele can have a significant impact on male fertility. Studies have shown that up to 40% of men with infertility have varicocele, making it one of the most common causes of male infertility. The exact mechanism by which varicocele affects fertility is not well understood, but it is believed to be due to the increased temperature in the testicles caused by the enlarged veins. This can lead to decreased sperm production and quality, as well as changes in hormone levels.

causes of Varicocele

Varicocele is a medical condition that results from the abnormal enlargement and twisting of the veins within the scrotum.   The exact cause of varicocele is not fully understood, but it is thought to be caused by a combination of factors. Some of the known causes of varicocele include:

  • Abnormal valves: The veins in the scrotum have small valves that help to regulate blood flow. If these valves are abnormal or damaged, they may not function properly, leading to the pooling of blood and the development of varicocele.
  • Genetics: Some studies suggest that varicocele may be an inherited condition, as it tends to run in families. This may be due to genetic factors that affect the structure and function of the veins in the scrotum.
  • Testicular growth: The testicles grow and develop rapidly during puberty, which can put extra pressure on the veins in the scrotum. This increased pressure can cause the veins to become enlarged and twisted, leading to varicocele.
  • Lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle factors may increase the risk of developing varicocele, such as obesity, heavy lifting or prolonged standing or sitting, which can increase pressure in the scrotum.
  • Unknown factors: In some cases, the exact cause of varicocele is not known. However, it is believed to be a multifactorial condition, with several different factors contributing to its development.

Symptoms of varicocele:

Varicocele often causes no symptoms or discomfort and may be discovered during a routine physical exam or fertility evaluation.

  1. A visible or palpable mass or lump in the scrotum that may feel like a “bag of worms” when touched.
  1. A dull ache or heavy feeling in the scrotum that may worsen during physical activity or prolonged standing.
  1. Testicular atrophy or shrinking (in rare cases, usually when left untreated)
  1. Infertility – reduced sperm count or poor sperm motility, although not always caused by varicocele, it is one of the more common treatable factors that can contribute to male infertility.

It’s important to note that varicoceles can occur without any symptoms, so it’s important to seek medical evaluation if there is a concern or risk of infertility.

Will varicose surgery increase Testosterone

Varicocele surgery is a common treatment option for men with varicoceles who experience pain, discomfort, or fertility issues. While varicocele surgery is not primarily designed to increase testosterone levels, some studies suggest that it may have a positive impact on testosterone production.

Varicoceles can disrupt the normal blood flow to the testicles, which can result in an increase in temperature, leading to reduced testosterone production. Studies have shown that varicocele surgery can restore normal blood flow to the testicles, improving temperature regulation and potentially increasing testosterone production.

A study published in the Journal of Urology in 2010 found that after varicocele surgery, testosterone levels increased by an average of 26%. Another study published in the journal Fertility and Sterility in 2012 found that testosterone levels increased by 17% after varicocele repair.

However, that not all men with varicoceles will experience low testosterone levels, and not all men who undergo varicocele surgery will see an increase in testosterone production. Testosterone levels can also be affected by other factors, such as age, weight, and overall health. If you are considering varicocele surgery, it’s important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your doctor, including the potential impact on testosterone levels. Your doctor may also recommend additional treatments or lifestyle changes to help optimize testosterone production and overall health.


The treatment of varicocele depends on the severity of the condition and whether it is causing symptoms or affecting fertility. For mild cases, no treatment may be necessary, but regular monitoring may be recommended. In cases where varicocele is causing pain or discomfort, pain relievers or anti-inflammatory medication may be prescribed.

For men who are experiencing infertility, varicocele repair may be recommended. This can be done through open surgery or minimally invasive procedures such as embolization. During surgery, the affected veins are tied off or removed, while during embolization, a small catheter is used to block the affected veins.

Varicocele treatment depends on the severity of the condition, the presence of symptoms, and whether the varicocele is affecting fertility. Treatment options for varicocele include:

  • Observation: If the varicocele is small, not causing any symptoms, and not affecting fertility, your doctor may recommend monitoring the condition without treatment.
  • Supportive measures: Lifestyle changes such as wearing supportive underwear, avoiding prolonged sitting or standing, and not lifting heavy objects may help relieve discomfort and improve blood flow.
  • Medications: Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help relieve pain associated with varicoceles. However, they do not treat the underlying condition.
  • Varicocele embolization: A minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a small catheter into the affected vein and blocking it with a material such as coils or glue.
  • Varicocelectomy: A surgical procedure in which the affected veins are tied off or removed. This can be done using open surgery, laparoscopic surgery or with microscopic assistance.

Varicocele treatment is generally considered safe and effective, with a low risk of complications. Your doctor can help you determine the best treatment option based on your individual needs and the severity of your varicocele. It’s important to seek medical attention if you have any symptoms, as untreated varicoceles can lead to decreased fertility or testicular atrophy in rare cases.

Erectile dysfunction can be caused by varicocele

There is limited scientific evidence to suggest that varicocele directly causes erectile dysfunction (ED). Erectile dysfunction is a complex condition with many possible causes, such as underlying health conditions, psychological factors, or medication use.

While varicocele may indirectly contribute to ED, it is not a common cause. Varicocele is a condition that affects the veins in the scrotum, which can cause blood to pool in the area and increase the temperature around the testicles. This can lead to reduced sperm quality or testicular damage, which may potentially affect testosterone production.

Low testosterone levels can contribute to ED, as testosterone is an essential hormone for sexual function. However, not all men with varicocele will experience low testosterone levels or ED.

If you are experiencing symptoms of ED or varicocele, it’s important to speak with your healthcare provider for a proper evaluation and diagnosis. Treatment options are available for both conditions and may involve lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Conclusion :

varicocele is a common condition that affects many men worldwide. While it may not cause symptoms for some, it can lead to discomfort, pain, infertility, and other complications for others. Diagnosis is usually made through a physical examination and ultrasound imaging, and treatment options include surgery or embolization. However, the decision to treat a varicocele should be based on individual circumstances, and the risks and benefits of treatment should be carefully considered. With proper diagnosis and treatment, most men with varicocele can experience relief from symptoms and improve their chances of achieving a successful pregnancy. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you suspect you have varicocele or are experiencing any related symptoms


Q: What is varicocele?

A: Varicocele is a condition that occurs when the veins in the scrotum become enlarged and dilated, leading to reduced blood flow and potential damage to the testicles.

Q: Can varicocele affect male fertility?

A: Yes, varicocele can negatively impact male fertility by reducing sperm count, motility, and morphology, as well as affecting hormone levels and testicular function.

Q: How common is varicocele in men?

A: Varicocele is a relatively common condition that affects approximately 15-20% of men.

Q: What are the symptoms of varicocele?

A: Varicocele may not cause any symptoms, but some men may experience a dull ache or pain in the scrotum, swelling, or a lump.

Q: How is varicocele diagnosed?

A: Varicocele is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and ultrasound imaging.

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