Cataracts are normally cloudy structure in the lens of the eye that leads to vision loss. Cataracts occur when protein fibres in the lens begin to break down and form cloudy or dull clumps. When the cataract starts developing, the opacity starts extending to the larger part of the lens, which stops the light pass on through the eye lens.
When a cataract develops, the opacity no longer allows the lens to focus light properly on the back of the eye. Cataracts begin when the proteins in the eye form lumps that prevent the lens from sending clear images to the retina and also when changes in the lens of the eye make it less transparent. Most cataracts are caused by age-related changes in the lens that make it cloudy or opaque.
With age, some proteins can form pieces and cloud a certain area of the lens. When normal ageing starts proceeding, the eye lens surrounded by the tissue breaks which turns cloudy. Rupture and adhesion of the lens tissue are what cause a cataract.
Majorly everyone develops cataracts as a result of eye injury and aging. Cataracts most commonly affect older people (age-related cataracts), but some children are born with cataracts. Cloudy spots in the lenses can sometimes become larger and larger, causing a child’s vision loss. Most cataracts that babies are born with occur along with other vision or health problems.
A cataract is formed because an injury has caused the fibers of the lens in the eye to break. Cataracts can grow larger over time and affect more lenses. This is a cataract, and over time it can enlarge and blur more of the eye’s natural lenses, making it difficult to see.
Cataracts in one eye will also spread to another and will lead to different vision problems in the eye. Injury to one or both eyes can lead to the development of traumatic cataracts. Cataracts can also develop after eye injuries or surgery for other eye problems, such as glaucoma.
With some types of cataracts, your near vision may also improve for a short time, but your vision may worsen as the cataract develops. With the faulty vision, cataract leads to cases like wobble of the eye, and strabismus. Cataracts can make the eyes more sensitive to light, causing discomfort. Because light becomes more concentrated at the back of the lens, posterior sub capsular cataracts can cause symptoms that are disproportionate to their size.
You can have cataracts in both eyes, but they usually don’t form at the same time. They often occur due to another disease in the body (such as diabetes). Cataracts usually develop in both eyes, but one may be worse than the other.
Traumatic cataract develops after an eye injury, but it can take several years. Cataracts can also be present at birth (congenital cataract) or occur at any age after an eye injury (traumatic cataract). Children’s cataracts can develop in one or both eyes, depending on the cause.
The clouding of the normal healthy lens in this type of cataract is a direct result of oxidative stress. Exposure to excess free radicals over time can cause damage or disorganization of lens proteins and lipids in eye tissues. Toxins cause oxidation in cells, including the lens.